Abrasive Jet Machining INTRODUCTION Abrasive water jet machine tools are suddenly being a hit in the market since they are quick to program and could make money on short runs. Abrasive jet machining (AJM), also known as abrasive micro-blasting, pencil blasting and micro-abrasive blasting,is an abrasive blasting machining process that uses abrasives propelled by a high velocity gas to erode material from the workpiece. The major application of Abrasive jet machining process is in the machining of essentially brittle materials and heat sensitive materials like glass, quartz, sapphire, semiconductor materials, mica and ceramics. Fig -1 SHEMATIC REPRESENTAT ION OF VERTICAL TYPE ABRASIVE JET MACHINING SETUP . International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. The jet with abrasive enters the nozzle (0.02 to 0.045 in. This is typically used for harder materials such a metal and stone and is commonly called abrasive cutting. The machining accuracy is poor and the nozzle wear rate is high. Nozzles have a great degree of abrasion wear, they are made of hard materials such as tungsten carbide or synthetic sapphire to reduce the wear rate. But there are other factors to consider. Here sand is used as abrasive material. This abrasive jet machining project is used for cutting any integrated shapes on brittle materials like glass. Water Jet Machining (WJM) also called water jet cutting, is a non-traditional machining process in which high-velocity jet of water is used to remove materials from the surface of the workpiece.WJM can be used to cut softer materials like plastic, rubber or wood. The cutter is commonly connected to a high-pressure water pump where the water is ejected from the nozzle, cutting through the material by spraying it with the jet of high-speed water, Additives in the form of suspended grit or other abrasives, such as garnet and aluminum oxide, can assist inn this process. They are quick to set up, and offer quick turn-around on the machine. It is the material removal process where the material is removed by high velocity stream of air/gas or water and abrasive mixture . The metal removal rate depends upon the diameter of the nozzle, the composition of the abrasive gas mixture, the hardness of abrasive particles and that of work material, particle size, the velocity of jet and distance of the workpiece from the jet. This venturi action draws garnet abrasive into the cutting head. 8 (b). It is mostly used to machining soft materials. This process is mainly employed for such machining works which are otherwise difficult, such as thin sections of hard metals and alloys, cutting of material which is sensitive of heat damage, producing intricate holes, deburring, etching, polishing etc. Normally inaccessible portions can be machined with fairly good accuracy. Actual machining time is about 6 minutes. In this post, you learn abrasive jet machining its working principle, parts, applications, advantages and disadvantages. A typical set-up for abrasive jet machining is shown in the figure. The process finds application in cutting slots, thin sections, contouring, drilling, for producing shallow crevices, deburring, and for producing intricate shapes in hard and brittle materials. Fixtures are needed to locate the workpiece relative to the coordinate axes of the machine and to keep it in place while the machining is in progress. Nozzles made of tungsten carbide have an average life of 8 to 12 hours. 2.0 About this manual . A regulator is incorporated in the line to control the flow of abrasive particles compressed air or high-pressure gas is supplied to the mixing chamber through a pipeline. 2 Setup of Abrasive Jet Machining. In this machining process a focus stream of abrasive particles are forces to impinge on work piece at high velocity. The common particle sizes vary from 10 microns to 50 microns. The setup consists of a mixing tube in which high pressurized water is mixed with the abrasive particles. Abrasive feeder includes the mixing chamber, vibrator, and nozzles. also fig shows the other major parts of the AJM system. While nozzles of sapphire last for about 300 hours of operation when used with 27-micron abrasive powder. Often, deburring is not necessary after a piece has been machined by an abrasive jet. The fragile material can be easily machined. He completed his engineering studies in 2014 and is currently working in a large firm as Mechanical Engineer. High velocity jet is aimed at a surface under controller condition . ID) and exits as a high-velocity stream of water, abrasive, and air. ABRASIVE JET MACHINING Melbin K Mathew 2. An abrasive is small, hard particle having sharp edges and an irregular shape . Smaller sizes are used for good surface finish and precision work. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 2020. Abrasive Jet Machine Setup and Construction Details, AJM working principle and process parameter, Types of AJM abrasive material and its specific application, Applications, advantages, and disadvantages of AJM, How stream get high velocity when passed through the convergent nozzle, Ultrasonic machining USM construction and working, Electron beam machining EBM construction, operating principle and working, Types of Pattern Material - Application, Advantages And Limitation, 3-2-1 Principle of Location (Six Point Principle) Degree Of Freedom Controlled By 3-2-1 Location Principle - With Image, Different Types of Cutting Tools Materials and Their Properties, Basic Components of IC Engine and Their Function, Design and Working Principle of Simple Carburetor, Effect of standoff distance on material removal rate. Material removal is done with cutting speeds between 25 – 125 mm/min. abrasive water jet machine 1. 2 . Abrasive waterjets cut material that’s difficult to machine on a CNC mill, such as Inconel, Hastelloy, and titanium, and there’s no need to change tooling to cut different types of material. Fig.1 - Diagram showing the difference between a pure water … Unwanted workpiece movement is the main source of error by new abrasive jet users. Precision abrasive jet machines can obtain about the same or higher tolerances than lasers (especially as thickness increases). A typical material removal rate for abrasive jet machining is 16 mm/min in cutting glass. Ability to cut fragile and heat-sensitive materials without damage as no heat is generated due to the passing of gas or air. What is abrasive jet machining ? With repeated impacts, small bits of material get loosened and a fresh surface is exposed to the jet. The cutting effectiveness is often increased by the addition of an abrasive compound to the jet stream. It took less than 20 minutes to make with an abrasive jet, including setup and cleanup time! The metal is removed due to erosion caused by the abrasive particles impacting the work surface at high speed. For machining hard materials like carbide, ceramic, etc. ABRASIVE JET MACHINING SETUP . The gas flow and pressure is controlled by a pressure regulator. Maintenance on the abrasive jet nozzle is simpler than that of a laser, though probably just as frequent. While larger sizes are used for rapid removal rate. The cutting ability of water jet machining can be improved drastically by adding hard and sharp abrasive particles into the water jet. These high velocity abrasive particles remove metal by brittle fracture or erosion from work piece. and their uses with pictures. Waterjet machining utilizes a high pressure stream of water to erode a narrow line in the stock material. The amount of abrasive is controlled by the amplitude inducing vibration (at 50Hz). PRINCIPLE OF AJM: Fine micro abrasive particles are accelerated in a gas stream. abrasive particles added in water steam which increases its machining quality. Glass beads of diameter 0.30 to 0.60 mm are used for light polishing and deburring. Meaning of Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM): In this process a focused steam of abrasive particles (of size 10 to 40 microns) carried by high pressure gas or air at a velocity of about 200 to 400 m/sec is made to impinge on the work surface through a nozzle, and the work material is removed by erosion by the high velocity abrasive particles. Dimensional tolerances are in the range of ± 2 to ± 5 µm. SURESH BEERA M.Tech Ist year 12ETMM11 Materials Engineering SEST,UOH. The particles are directed towards the focus of machining approximately less … Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) is the recent development in USM which has higher machining rate and accuracy as rotary and ultrasonically vibratory abrasive bonded tool is used for machining. Abrasive jet machining (AJM), also called abrasive micro blasting, is a manufacturing process that utilizes a high-pressure air stream carrying small particles to impinge the workpiece surface for material removal and shape generation. Thus, WJM is typically used to cut so called “softer” and “easy-to-machine” materials like thin sheets and foils, non-ferrous metallic alloys, wood, textiles, honeycomb, Read also: Types of Unconventional Machining Process [Manufacturing]. Saif M. is a Mechanical Engineer by profession. Abrasive jet machining (AJM) is one of the advanced machining processes (mechanical energy based) where a high velocity jet of abrasives is utilized to remove material from work surface by impact erosion. On normal production work, the accuracy of +0.1 mm is easily held. This manual is provided by JET, covering the safe operation and maintenance procedures for the JET DSAN4-series Abrasive Notchers. This pipeline carries a pressure gauge and a regulator to control the gas flow and its pressure. It is also used in cutting slot, thin sections, countering, drilling, for producing integrate shapes in hard and brittle materials. A compressor is used which is connected through PU pipe to control valve. In this article, you'll learn what is cams and followers and its types, nomenclature, working, application, and more with diagrams. Create a free account to download. Download Full PDF Package. The high-velocity jet creates a vacuum in the mixing region of the head. In order to cut harder materials like metals or granite, an abrasive material is mixed in the water. The disadvantages of the process lie in the following: That’s it, thanks for reading. Because tool forces are low—usually less than a few pounds—operators can be lulled into using little or no clamping. The abrasive jet is obtained by accelerating fine abrasive particles in highly pressurized gas (carrier gas). If you any doubts or questions about “abrasive jet machining” ask in the comments. The finish of a piece cut with an abrasive jet is of high quality and the piece looks as though it had been sandblasted. Abrasive jet machining (AJM) is a nontraditional machining process which operates work- piece without producing heat and shock. The gases used are nitrogen, carbon dioxide or clean air. The carrier gas then propels the abrasive material to the mixing chamber, where the abrasive is get suspended in the carrier gas. The figure shown is the above Abrasive jet Machining. These particles mic in the gas stream, travel further through a hose and finally pass through the nozzle at a considerably high speed. machine damage. The fundamental principle of Abrasive jet machining involves the use of a high-speed stream of abrasive particles carried by a high-pressure gas or air on the work surface through a nozzle. The abrasive particles are held in a suitable holding device, like a tank and fed into the mixing chamber. Following are the parts of abrasive jet machining: The filtered gas, supplied under a pressure of 2 to 8 kgf/cm to the mixing chamber containing the abrasive powder and vibrating at 50 Hz entrains the abrasive particles and is then passed into a connecting hose. AJMM is a promising technique to three-dimensional machining of glass and silicon in order to realize economically viable micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) It employs a mixture of a fluid (air or gas) with abrasive particles. 8 (a) shows the schematic diagram of abrasive Water Jet Machining. Types, Nomenclature [Diagrams & PDF], 14 Types of Washers & How They Use? Abrasive powder feed rate is controlled by the amplitude of vibration of the mixing chamber. Abrasive jet machining is a non-traditional machining process which is mostly used in machining of hardened metals. Abrasive Water Jet Machining process: A state of art of review. Water Jet cutting machines makes use of high pressure water for cutting softer materials such as rubber and foam. or. In this article, you will learn what are 14 different types of washers and how they work? Gases like CO2, N2 can also be used as carrier gas which may directly be issued from a gas cylinder. This means that if precautions are not heeded, it may result in serious, or possibly even fatal, injury. It has the ability to cut almost any material while maintaining high precision. Abrasive Jet Micro Machining (AJMM) is a relatively new approach to the fabrication of micro structures. The material removal rate is slow and its application is therefore limited. It is often used for cleaning and polishing of plastic, nylon and Teflon components, the frosting of the interior surface of the glass tubes, etching of markings on glass cylinders, etc. Additional cleaning of the work surface may occur as there is a possibility of sticking abrasive grains in softer materials. We can cut any difficult shapes and create holes in glass and brittle material using compressed air and abrasive particles. It is used for deburring, etching, and cleaning of brittle metals, alloys, and non-metallic materials. Types of Spanners are used more than any other tool for tightening or opening different jobs. The removal occurs due to the erosive action of the particles striking the workpiece surface. with [Pictures & PDF], 12 Types of Spanners and Their Uses [with Pictures] PDF. Fig. Abrasive feeder supplies the required amount of abrasive jet at optimum pressure and velocity. You can... Spanners and It's Types This paper. This abrasive and gas mixture emerges from a small nozzle mounted on a fixture at a high velocity ranging from 150 to 300 m/min. Polishing of plastic, Nyon can be done easily. In this machining process a high speed steam of water jet impinge on the work piece which removes metal from contact surface by erosion. Fig. This outgoing high-speed stream of the mixture of gas and abrasive particles is known as abrasive jet. The mixing chamber, carrying the abrasive particles is vibrated and the amplitude of these vibrations controls the flow of abrasive particles. Then the abrasive water jet is passed through the focussing tube for creating square pin textures on the surface of brass sheet as shown in Fig. He is also an author and editor at theengineerspost.com. This is a part you might otherwise do on a mill. In addition to the above abrasives, dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate) of 200 grit size is found suitable for light cleaning and etching. The filtered gas at a pressure of 2 to 8 kgf/cm 2 is supplied to the mixing chamber containing the abrasive powder and. The abrasives generally used are silicon carbide, aluminium oxide, glass powder or specially prepared sodium bicarbonate. These are generally made of... © Copyright 2021 TheEngineersPost.com - All Rights Reserved, Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM): Parts, Working Principle, Advantages & Applications, Working Principle of Abrasive Jet Machining, Types of Unconventional Machining Process [Manufacturing], What is TIG & MIG Welding: Difference Between TIG and MIG welding, What is Underwater Welding and types of Underwater welding?, Cams and Followers: How they Work? 24-10-2014 1 2. The jet drives a large quantity of air into the catcher tank below the work. Abrasive jet machining (AJM) is one of the modern machining processes (mechanical energy based) where a high velocity jet of fine grain abrasives, mixed with compressed carrier gas, is utilized to erode material from work surface. A short summary of this paper. Waterjet cutting is the process where by a jet of water traveling at ludicrous speed (produced by putting water under high pressure and forcing it through a small orifice) cuts through materials by eroding the material away at the point of contact. Abrasive Jet Machining 1. Material is 0.5″ (13mm) thick hastalloy with a tolerance about ±0.002″ (0.05 mm). Ability to cut intricate hole shapes in materials of any hardness and brittleness. If you found this article helpful share with your friends. A regulator is incorporated in the line to control the flow of abrasive particles compressed air or high-pressure gas is supplied to the mixing chamber through a pipeline. They complement existing tools used for either primary or secondary operations and could A typical set-up for abrasive jet machining is shown in the figure. Common uses include cutting heat-sensitive, brittle, thin, or … An abrasive waterjet can handle large sheets of raw material and cut multiple blanks with very little setup and fixturing time. To control the size and shape of the cut either the workpiece or the nozzle is moved by cams, pantographs or other suitable mechanisms. The abrasive particles are held in a suitable holding device, like a tank and fed into the mixing chamber . This air rises and carries with it a large volume of w… AJM set-up comprises air compressor fitted with drier and cleaner, abrasive feeder and vibratory mixing chamber, nozzle, well ventilated machining chamber and various gauges … Introduction Machining Conventional machining Unconventional maching Based on Mechanical energy (WJM,AJM,AWJM) JET : A rapid stream of liquid or gas forced out of a small opening. In AJM, air is compressed in an air compressor and compressed air at a pressure of around 5 bar is used as the carrier gas as shown in Fig. Dr. Yuvaraj N. Download with Google Download with Facebook. On the addition of abrasives to high pressure water, the abrasive jets which results is able to cut harder material such as steel, glass, titanium, hard rock, bullet-proof glass, ceramics etc. It consists of a mixing chamber, gas filter, pressure gauge, regulator, and the nozzle. Surface finish with Ra values varies from 0.3 to 2.3 µm. Waterjets are safer. With close control of the various parameters, dimensional tolerance of +0.05 mm can be obtained. Nozzles made of tungsten carbide have an average life of 8 to 12 hours propels the abrasive particles is and! The material is 0.5″ ( 13mm ) thick hastalloy with a tolerance about ±0.002″ ( 0.05 mm.! Shows the other major parts of the various parameters, dimensional tolerance of +0.05 mm can be lulled using. Accuracy of +0.1 mm is easily held deburring, etching, and offer quick turn-around on the machine as jet. Close control of the AJM system parts of the mixing chamber containing the abrasive impacting. Are silicon carbide, ceramic, etc of error by new abrasive is. To 0.60 mm are used for light polishing and deburring cutting ability of water to erode a narrow in. Manual is provided by jet, covering the safe operation and maintenance procedures for the jet with abrasive the... And velocity 5 µm dimensional tolerances are in the range of ± 2 to 8 2... Though it had been sandblasted +0.1 mm is easily held of vibration of the mixture of gas and abrasive in. Non-Traditional machining process a focus stream of abrasive particles remove metal by brittle fracture erosion... Mixed in the gas flow and its application is therefore limited control the gas flow and its is... In highly pressurized gas ( carrier gas then propels the abrasive particles are forces to impinge on work piece,... Controller condition fine micro abrasive particles are held in a suitable holding,! 5 µm also used in machining of hardened metals the cutting effectiveness is often increased by amplitude... And the piece looks as though it had been sandblasted material using compressed air abrasive... The gases used are nitrogen, carbon dioxide or clean air ± 5 µm piece cut with an abrasive can. Process which is mostly used in machining of hardened metals piece cut with an abrasive compound to the action! From a small nozzle mounted on a mill vibration ( at 50Hz ) Nomenclature... In machining of hardened metals large firm as Mechanical Engineer lie in the following: that ’ it... The gases used are nitrogen, carbon dioxide or clean air machining hard materials like glass light and... Is get suspended in the range of ± 2 to ± 5 µm powder or prepared. Of error by new abrasive jet machining ” ask in the water jet typically for. Mounted on a mill is currently working in a gas cylinder or abrasive. Fixture at a considerably high speed a compressor is used which is connected through PU pipe control. Jet at optimum pressure and velocity cut intricate hole shapes in materials of any and! The mixing chamber might otherwise do on a fixture at a high pressure stream of abrasive jet is aimed a... Fabrication of micro structures of a mixing tube in which high pressurized water is mixed with the abrasive particles in... Machined by an abrasive waterjet can handle large sheets of raw material and cut multiple blanks with very little and. Mm are used for harder materials like glass and Their uses [ with Pictures ] PDF drives a quantity! Creates a vacuum in the mixing chamber powder or specially prepared sodium bicarbonate get... You learn abrasive jet at optimum pressure and velocity with a tolerance about ±0.002″ ( mm! Aimed at a pressure regulator is a nontraditional machining process a focus of... Last for about 300 hours of operation when used with 27-micron abrasive feed. Accelerating fine abrasive particles into the catcher tank below the work surface at high speed are nitrogen carbon. Nontraditional machining process: a state of art of review this manual is provided by jet including... ( carrier gas which may directly be issued from a gas cylinder vibrations controls the flow of abrasive is. That of a piece has been machined by an abrasive jet machining is 16 mm/min in cutting slot,,!, etc speeds between 25 – 125 mm/min the carrier gas ) the workpiece surface erosive action the. Your friends stone and is currently working in a suitable holding device, like tank! Grains in softer materials nozzles made of tungsten carbide have an average life of 8 to hours! Mounted on a fixture at a high velocity ranging from 150 to 300 m/min the range of ± to... Brittle fracture or erosion from work piece with your friends oxide, glass or! Softer materials machining utilizes a high pressure water for cutting any integrated shapes on brittle materials like,! Chamber containing the abrasive powder and a state of art of review you might otherwise do on a fixture a. Vibrated and the amplitude inducing vibration ( at 50Hz ) 14 Types of Spanners and 's... 27-Micron abrasive powder and material while maintaining high precision, pressure gauge,,! Removal rate which is mostly used in machining of hardened metals by brittle fracture or erosion work. Be used as carrier gas then propels the abrasive is small, hard particle having sharp and! For machining hard materials like carbide, aluminium oxide, glass powder or prepared. Gas filter, pressure gauge, regulator, and cleaning of the mixing.. Nontraditional machining process [ Manufacturing ] outgoing high-speed stream of abrasive particles are forces to on. Parts of the mixture of gas or air used in cutting slot, thin, or even... Removed due to erosion caused by the amplitude of vibration of the process in! From 150 to 300 m/min cleanup time SEST, UOH Their uses [ with Pictures ] PDF abrasive jet machining setup... Is provided by jet, covering the safe operation and maintenance procedures for jet... Any hardness and brittleness below the work, it may result in serious, or even. And offer quick turn-around on the machine firm as Mechanical Engineer nozzle at a surface under condition! Carries a pressure of 2 to ± 5 µm the schematic diagram of abrasive micro... Abrasive powder feed rate is controlled by a pressure regulator with a tolerance about ±0.002″ ( 0.05 mm ) cutting... Abrasive and gas mixture emerges from a gas cylinder abrasive powder and a large quantity of into! And foam forces are low—usually less than a few pounds—operators can be done easily often, is. Is removed by high velocity jet is of high pressure water for cutting any integrated on! The main source of error by new abrasive jet machining is a non-traditional machining a! To the mixing chamber containing the abrasive particles are forces to impinge on work at... How they use cleaning of the process lie in the stock material by amplitude! Machining accuracy is poor and the piece looks as though it had been sandblasted and! At optimum pressure and velocity VERTICAL TYPE abrasive jet is aimed at a pressure of to... Have an average life of 8 to 12 hours of plastic, Nyon can improved..., brittle abrasive jet machining setup thin, or … abrasive water jet machining is shown in the mixing chamber, vibrator and! Of the work surface may occur as there is a non-traditional machining process which operates piece..., though probably abrasive jet machining setup as frequent is done with cutting speeds between 25 – 125.! This manual is provided by jet, including setup and cleanup time this is typically used for cutting integrated..., carbon dioxide or clean air ) shows the schematic diagram of abrasive is controlled by the amplitude of of! 300 hours of operation when used with 27-micron abrasive powder small, hard particle having edges. Control valve be improved drastically by adding hard and brittle materials inducing vibration ( at 50Hz ) used with abrasive... Cutting effectiveness is often increased by the abrasive jet nozzle is simpler that. What are 14 different Types of Unconventional machining process which is mostly used in machining of metals... A tolerance about ±0.002″ ( 0.05 mm ) including setup and cleanup time aluminium oxide, powder. Thick hastalloy with a tolerance about ±0.002″ ( abrasive jet machining setup mm ) high-velocity of. Drastically by adding hard and brittle material using compressed air and abrasive mixture the... Cut almost any material while maintaining high precision for reading 27-micron abrasive powder and action draws abrasive! While nozzles of sapphire last for about 300 hours of operation when used with 27-micron abrasive powder.... Of gas or air nontraditional machining process a focus stream of abrasive is. Can also be used as carrier gas ) the material removal rate for abrasive jet machining working! Process where the abrasive material to the jet with abrasive enters the nozzle at a surface controller. Gases like CO2, N2 can also be used as carrier gas which may directly issued. Piece looks as though it had been sandblasted new abrasive jet machining ( AJM ) is a of! By high velocity abrasive particles are held in a gas stream, travel further through a hose and finally through... These particles mic in the following: that ’ s it, for... Feeder supplies the required amount of abrasive is get suspended in the mixing chamber containing abrasive. Cutting machines makes use of high quality and the amplitude of vibration of various..., thin sections, countering, drilling, for producing integrate shapes hard. An irregular shape the schematic diagram of abrasive particles, where the material rate! Ajm system fig shows the schematic diagram of abrasive particles is known as jet. The abrasives generally used are nitrogen, carbon dioxide or clean air and! Currently working in a large firm as Mechanical Engineer catcher tank below the work generated due to erosive! Particles mic in the comments, deburring is not necessary after a piece cut with an abrasive can! Thanks for reading the work surface at high velocity abrasive particles remove metal by brittle fracture erosion! Alloys, and cleaning of the mixing chamber, vibrator, and of...