demonstrate conformity, they seem different somehow. Cooley, Charles H. (1962), Social Organization, New York: Schoken. Normative influence refers to the fact that people sometimes change their behavior, thoughts, or values to be liked and accepted by others. The changes were in conformity with the law.. If the objective is to obtain the information most pertinent to the functional or performance aspects of a purchase decision, there is no reason to expect a systematic bias towards frequently contacted or strong-tie referents. Assael, Henry (1987), Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action, Boston: Kent. Explain the person, procedures, and competing interpretations behind the Milgram experiments on authority. Conformity may appear in our public behavior even though we may believe something completely different in private. In addiion to individual differences, situational factors (e.g., the presence or absence of referents at the time of decision making and their relationship to the decision maker) may dramatically affect the extent and type of social influence that occurs B a possibility that could be examined experimentally. Increases in the size of the majority increase conformity regardless of whether the conformity is informational or normative. However, the very nature of the scale items (concerned with behavior which "makes me fit in" or may elicit "disapproval") and the assumption that sensitivity to social comparison information is "motivated by such factors as a fear of negative social evaluation" point to normative as the type of social influence that would be driven primarily by this individual-difference factor. A few studies have sought to clarify normative influence mechanisms and outcomes. E.g. Difference Between Conformity And Non Conformity. When soldiers obey their commanding officers, they probably do it both because others are doing it (normative conformity) and because they think it is the right thing to do (informational conformity). While extant literature establishes the existence and some characteristics of normative and informational social influence, more research is needed. Scott Ward and Peter Wright, Chicago, IL:Association for Consumer Research, 393-405. Mascarenhas, Oswald A.J. Since the variable for which significant respondent-referent differences emerged dealt with subjective value perceptions, a determination of whether differences in heterophily/homophily are real or only perceived must await further research. And when the experimenters asked the participants if they had noticed anything unusual about the behavior of the other person during the experiment, none of them indicated awareness of any face rubbing or foot shaking. Involvement (or degree of personal relevance) has been shown to be positively related to external search and cognitive processing of decision-relevant stimuli, apparently motivated by an attempt to increase the effectiveness of alternative evaluation (cf. Some limitations exist in the research reported herein. In this lesson, we discuss the two types of social conformity and differentiate between conformity and obedience. 4. Coded in this fashion, the data contained 12 instances of normative social influence, 42 of informational, and 20 characterized by both influence types. The first hypothesis related to consumers’ involvement in the product or service involved in the decision. Bearden, William O., Richard G. Netemeyer, and Jesse E. Teel (1989), "Measurement of Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence," Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (March), 473-482. Alternatively, there is no reason to expect any consistent or systematic social/demographic similarity among consumers and those referents sought out because of their superior knowledge, experience or expertise. Homans, George (1961), Social Behavior: Its Elemental Forms, New York: Harcourt. A consumer seeking normative rewards will likely seek out the mediators of such rewards, commonly members of peer, reference, or other associational groups with whom s/he has regular contact. Recognizing the prevalence of normative social influence in many decision situations, Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) incorporated "subjective norm" into their "Theory of Reasoned Action," developing and validating a measurement approach for this normative construct as an integral component of their behavioral intention model. The motivation behind normative conformity is the desire to be liked and accepted in society. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Legal. Drawing upon those motivations and relevant prior research, hypotheses are proposed that employ type of influence as the independent variable, examining differences in several decision-characteristic, individual-difference and consumer/referent-relationship variables. Conformity is divided into two groups, normative and informational. Marketers adopting such common strategies as the targeting of opinion leaders and promotions to reference groups may enhance the efficiency of such efforts by designing the communication elements of such a strategy around the informational or normative (or combined) motivations that prevail in their target markets. While the participant and the confederate discussed the magazine photos, the confederate mirrored the posture, movements, and mannerisms displayed by the participant. Mascarenhas and Higby (1993) suggest that "susceptibility to interpersonal influences could be proportional to one’s involvement with the products/services that one plans to purchase" (p. 57). Bearden, Netemeyer and Teel (1989) developed and validated a scale for measuring consumer susceptibility to informational and normative interpersonal influence; they found that Lennox and Wolfe’s (1984) ATSCI scale and the "motivation to comply" construct (Ajzen and Fishbein 1980) exhibited correlations with susceptibility to normative influence which were relatively strong and significantly greater than correlation coefficients associated with informational influence. Full reference section is below. It is important when consumers feel the need to make informed choices. Another limitation of this survey is the dependence upon respondents’ ability and willingness accurately to report their objectives in soliciting information. This usually occurs when a person lacks knowledge and looks to the group for guidance. Specifically, the confederate either rubbed his or her face or shook his or her foot. In an investigation of the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence, a survey probed purchase decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship characteristics associated with recent purchase episodes involving advice from others. While this effort represents an initial step in the examination of the characteristics of normative and social influence, much work remains to be done in this under-researched area. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Looking at various experiments performed by Solomon Asch, Stanley Milgram, and Philip Zimbardo, this paper 's purpose is to identify the numerous ways in which people influence others, and how that changes their behaviour and actions, as well as the differences between them. Back to top; 21.2: Informational Conformity- Conforming To Be Accurate; 21.4: Majority Influence- … H3: Purchase situations involving normative social influence will be characterized by higher levels of product or service conspicuousness than those involving informational influence. With respect to the former perspective, the test of differences between category means (F2,71 = 2.89, p < .10, h2 = .08) showed lower respondent-referent contact frequency in informational (3.14) than in normative or combined situations (4.08 and 3.80, respectively). There are two types of conformity, normative conformity, and informational conformity. Brinberg and Plimpton (1986) found a relationship between consumption and conspicuousness and value-expressive influence. In other cases we conform not because we want to have valid knowledge but rather to meet the goal of belonging to and being accepted by a group we care about (Deutsch & Gerard, 1955). The intent of this research effort is to explain and empirically demonstrate the distinctive characteristics of normative and informational social influence with respect to decision, individual difference, and consumer-referent relationship variables. We may obey the speed limit or wear a uniform to our job (behavior) to conform to social norms and requirements, even though we may not necessarily believe that it is appropriate to do so (opinion). Respondents completed the ATSCI scale (Cronbach a reliability coefficient .90). This type of conformity usually involves internalization – where a person accepts t… Peggy Choong, Niagara University, NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28 | 2001, Thomas Allard, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Rather than creating the behavior to be mimicked, in this study the confederate imitated the behaviors of the participant. From a strategic perspective, the effective management of social influence requires an understanding of the type of social influence likely to prevail under different purchase decisions or situational conditions and the identification of individuals best positioned to exert such an influence. Informational influence refers to the provision of credible evidence of reality (Burnkrant and Cousineau 1975). Gizem Yalcin, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Nicole Kim, University of Maryland, USA As you can see in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\), the participants who had been mimicked liked the other person more and indicated that they thought the interaction had gone more smoothly, in comparison with the participants who had not been imitated. Levels of involvement and complexity were shown to be greater in informational influence situations than in normative. Higher levels of that construct were associated with normative and combined influence situations (3.67 and 3.75, respectively) than with purchases involving only informational influence (2.13). Normative social influence comes from a desire to be in agreement with the expectations of others in order to increase feelings such as belonging and self­ esteem. The request may be explicit, as in the direct The foregoing analysis suggests that higher levels of involvement and product/servic complexity are associated with purchase decisions involving informational influence than with those involving normative, while the opposite is true of the conspicuousness of the purchase and/or consumption of the product or service. In coding the questions addressing respondent’s reasons for consulting a particular referent, it became obvious that multiple decisions included a combination of normative and informational objectives on the part of respondents. Missed the LibreFest? Research is thus needed to establish the distinctive antecedents of the two types of social influence and differences between them with respect to the nature of the relationship between influence wielders and recipients. 1. 1727 Words 7 Pages. The prior two decades have seen sporadic research efforts aimed at further clarifying the nature of social influence in a consumer decision context. Peer pressure is a classic example of normative conformity. H2: Purchase situations involving informational social influence will be characterized by higher levels of decision complexity than those involving normative influence. Such an objective is seemingly more consistent with informational social influence than with a normative focus on social rewards or conformity. Both behaviors involve pressure and influence but certain characteristics allow differentiation of one from the other. targets’ cognitions and behaviors in the areas of compliance and conformity. Brown, Jacqueline Johnson and Peter H. Reingen (1987), "Social Times and Word-of-Mouth Referral Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (December), 350-362. Where there is plentiful food a preference for thinness prevails, in societies that struggle for survival plumpness may signify fertility and well-being. Each respondent was then asked to identify two purchase decisions, occurring within the most recent three months, in which information or advice was sought from another person or persons. However, whether the active solicitation of such information takes place among those with whom a consumer has frequent or infrequent contact may depend upon whether the objectives of such solicitation are normative or informational. The decision uncertainty occasioned by complexity would potentially activate a motivation to seek input from those perceived as possessing expertise relevant to the salient attributes of the desired product or service. It has been argued that the distinction between informational and normative conformity is more apparent than real and that it may not be possible to fully differentiate them (Turner, 1991). The normative-informational distinction may account for these contrasting findings. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Although in some cases conformity may be purely informational or purely normative, in most cases the goals of being accurate and being accepted go hand-in-hand, and therefore informational and normative conformity often occur at the same time. Analyze how social roles lead us to conform to situational expectations. Imitation is an important part of social interaction. Tell of a situation in which you experienced either informational influence or normative influence, but tell which one it was. (Don’t tell me what it is, you told me in # 1, give examples) 4. The means, standard deviations and contrast results associated with this and the other hypothesis tests are reported in Table 2. upport for hypothesis 2 is marginally significant (F2,71 = 270, p < .10, h2 = .07). A good everyday example would be drivers complying with traffic rules set by public authorities. Brown and Reingen (1987) demonstrated that strong primary ties (e.g., close friends) are more likely than weak secondary ties (e.g., seldom-contacted acquaintances) to provide a conduit for social influence, and showed a positive relationship between homophily ("the degree to which pairs of individuals are similar in terms of certain characteristics, such as age, sex, education, and social status," p.354) and social tie activation. As predicted, involvement differed significantly between the three categories (F2,71 = 3.16, p < .05, h2 = .08), with the mean involvement level higher in informational social influence contexts (5.76) than in normative (5.17). Explain the differences between informative conformity and normative conformity Summarize the conformity study performed by Solomon Asch and its impact on social psychology Describe why more modern studies may have found different results from Asch’s study "It seems necessary," they suggest, "if we are to gain insight into the determinants of buyer product evaluation, to come to grips with the role or roles played by the evaluation of relevant others in affecting the individual’s product evaluation. - The stimulus is ambiguous so they look to the group for information to resolve the ambiguity. Social Conformity Imagine you’ve volunteered for a study. Conformance is a related term of conformity. Burnkrant, Robert E. and Alain Cousineau (1975), "Informational and Normative Social Influence in Buyer Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 2 (December), 206-215. 3. Although normative and value-expressive influence are conceptually different, they have been found to be quite similar and have proven difficult to distinguish empirically (Burnkrant and Cousineau 1975; Bearden, Netemeyer and Teel 1989). The changes were in conformance with the law.. Having completed the latter battery of questions for each referent, the respondent completed the same psychographic and demographic measures relative to himself or herself. Hypothesis 6 addressed the strength of the consumer-referent relationship from the perspective of frequency of contact (H56a) and incidence of prior advice solicitation (H6b). By drawing on recent developments in computational models of decision-making under uncertainty, we propose an account of how informational influences affect conformity behaviour. However, behaviors that are originally performed out of a desire to be accepted (normative conformity) may frequently produce changes in beliefs to match them, and the result becomes private acceptance. Conspicuousness, contact and advice solicitation frequency, and consumer-referent homophily with respect to the value attached to warm relationships were greater when normative influence was involved. Tests of homophily and heterophily are constrained by the lack of objective observation or reporting of referent characteristics. Product complexity in informational social influence scenarios (and those involving both informational and normative) exceeded that observed in decisions involving exclusively normative influence (2.36, 2.50 and 1.50, respectively). The wide variation in product categories reported by respondents may be partially responsible for the low levels of variance accounted for by the independent variables. 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